June 2020 \ BUILDING DIALOGUE \ 33 amount of landscape to be irrigated. Oth- er site design techniques that reduce water needs include clustering homes around com- mon “front yards” for gathering and play, only using turf for small outdoor living areas if at all and using synthetic turf for outdoor play spaces. The native landscape. The most water-effi- cient, sustainable landscape for any land is the predevelopment, native landscape. Preserving the native landscape and restoring disturbed areas to a native or naturalized condition should be a priority. Compact, low-impact design allows for the preservation of larger, consolidated landscape areas that are easier to protect and preserve during construction. Native/naturalized landscapes are easier to re- establish in disturbed areas without the need for permanent irrigation. Only use irrigated turf grasses for active use landscapes like sports fields, event and entertainment spaces and play areas. Manag- ing stormwater at its source, where it meets the ground can eliminate or reduce the size and complexity of the structured storm system. Bioswales and bioremediation basins improve stormwater quality and reduce the need for supplemental irrigation. Rainwater harvesting . Rainwater harvesting can re- duce potable water demand in the landscape by 30% or more. There are several techniques that can be applied at the home, neighborhood and community level. Roof- top rainwater harvesting that may or may not include storage systems, depending on jurisdictional limitations on stormwater retention. Impervious surface rainwater should be directed as sheet flows from streets, parking lots, patios and walks to adjacent landscape areas when- ever possible. If sheet flow is impractical, frequent curb cuts that direct rainwater to the adjacent landscape be- fore it enters a structured drainage system is effective. Using level spreading devises to disperse water at the outfall of storm lines will reduce erosion and encourage infiltration. Many non-native and naturalizing trees and shrubs will benefit from and perform well with slightly more water than direct rainfall provides, reducing the need for structured irrigation systems. Reclaimed water. Reclaimed, nonpotable water can be an effective alternative to using potable water in the landscape. There are drawbacks: It requires constructing a duplicate conveyance system, source may be too far away to be cost-effective, nonpotable water can elevate levels of salts and other minerals and impact the health and lifespan of plant materials. It is often not desired for use in active play areas and public spaces, depending on the quality of the water. Changing the culture of water. We don’t have a water scarcity problem as much as we have a water manage- ment problem. For total hydrology to be successful, we need to engage the public and build understanding and acceptance of new ideas and approaches to how every- one values and uses water. Water providers and other organizations that manage and regulate the distribution and use of water need to change codes and policies to allow for new, innovative practices to be implemented. \\ ELEMENTS Landscape Architecture More efficient patterns and connectivity of streets allows for more frequent internal looping of the system More efficient, compact lot sizes reduce the amount of landscape to be irrigated.